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The Name Of Ulster
CulzieDate: Friday, 2009-03-20, 5:13 PM | Message # 1
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The Name Ulster

The Ulaid (old Irish, pron. /'ʊləðʲ/; modern Irish Ulaidh, pron. /'ʊləɣʲ/) were a people of early Ireland who gave their name to the modern province of Ulster (modern Irish Cuige Uladh, pron. /'kuːiɡʲə 'ʊləɣ/, "province of of the Ulaid", in Irish; the English word "Ulster" derives from Irish Ulaid and Old Norse staðr, "place, territory").

The historical Ulaid
Ulaid is a plural noun, indicating an ethnonym rather than a geographic term. The Ulaid are probably mentioned in Ptolemy's 2nd century Geography, as the Ούολουντοι (Uolunti), probably a corruption of Ούλουτοι (Uluti). The name is probably derived from ul, "beard".
The use of the word cuige, earlier cóiced, literally "fifth", to mean "province", implies the existence at some point in prehistory of a pentarchy, whose five members were the Ulaid, (Ulster) the Connachta (Connacht), the Laigin (Leinster), Mumu (Munster), and probably Mide (Meath), a central province whose name survives in Counties Meath and Westmeath, although the original Mide was more extensive than those counties.
However, that pentarchy no longer existed by the 5th century, when documentary history in Ireland begins. The Ulaid still held significant territory, primarily in Counties Antrim, Down and Louth, although the boundaries of their territories were fluid. Their primary ruling dynasty was the Dál Fiatach, based in Downpatrick, County Down. The name Ulaid developed an additional geographical sense, so that the term rí Ulad, "king of the Ulaid", could refer to the king of the Dál Fiatach, or to the over-king of the north-east, many of whom came from dynasties of the Cruithne such as the Dál nAraide and the Uí Echach Cobo (the Dál nAraide even claimed in its genealogies to be na fir Ulaid, "the true Ulaid"). The rest of the ancient fifth fell under the control of the Airgialla and the northern dynasties of the Uí Néill. The Ulaid as a distinct people, as represented by the Dál Fiatach, survived until their conquest in 1177 by the Anglo-Norman knight John de Courcy.

Ethnonym
An ethnonym refers to an ethnic group, or a group of people who identify with each other as a distinct “people.” Ethnonyms are either endonyms (also called “autonyms,” names that come from inside the group) or exonyms (names that come from outside of the group).
Ethnonyms play a large role in group identity formation because they distinguish members from non-members. A common name that is not shared by people from other groups helps to harden the line between "us" and "them,"[1] despite the fact that individuals tend to float back and forth across that line and many individuals maintain important personal relationships across group boundaries.[2]
Names are prone to change as the dynamics of the group and the group's social and physical environments change over time. Groups may fracture and rename themselves in the process. They might absorb other groups and adopt a new name. They might adopt a name that is applied to them by outsiders, or they might simply begin to refer to themselves in a new way.[1]

Ethnic Group
An ethnic group is broadly defined as a population whose members identify with one another as distinct from others. This usually occurs through a perceived common history, and often also includes shared culture, race, religion, or language.[1]
The study of ethnic groups falls under the purview of several fields, including anthropology, sociology, and history.

Endonyms
Endonyms (or autonyms) are names that originate within the ethnic group to which they refer. Endonyms usually come from the traditional language of a group, but foreign names for the group are also sometimes adopted and transformed into a type of autonym. Three Native American groups – the Anishinabe, the Lenape, and the Diné – provide good examples[3].
All three terms mean “the people” or “the original people," a common theme in many places. Other endonyms also commonly refer to prominent natural landmarks or distinctive characteristics of a group's homeland.[4]
Each group has also adopted one or more foreign names as secondary autonyms. The Lenape also refer to themselves as “Delaware.” The largest Anishinabe group often goes by “Ojibwe” in Canada and “Chippewa” in the United States. And the Diné have adopted the name “Navaho” (or Navajo). Though these names do not originate in the traditional languages of the groups to which they refer, they may be considered autonyms because the people of those groups use them to refer to themselves.

Exonyms
An exonym is a name that is applied to an ethnic group by another group or groups of people. For instance, the English word “German” and the Spanish word “alemán” both refer to the people who call themselves “Deutsch.”
These names often originate as descriptions of some unique characteristic of the group - where they are from, what they eat, what they look like, etc. Many of the commonly used names for Native American groups started this way; some were relatively neutral descriptions of the group while others were more disparaging.[5] For example, the terms "Ojibwe" and "Chippewa" come from the Algonquin word "otchipwa" (to pucker), a reference to the style of moccasins that were traditionally worn by members of the group. In another case, the Huaorani of Ecuador are often called "Auca" by outsiders, which means "savage" in the language of the neighboring Quichua; the Huaorani consider this a gross insult.[6]
The sources of other exonyms are sometimes harder to trace. Numerous explanations have been suggested for the origin of the word "Cherokee," for example. Researchers have suggested words and phrases originating in several different languages for various descriptions of the group, but no consensus has been reached.[7]
A second set of names that are generally classified as exonyms consists of translations or corruptions of the name that a group has for itself in its own language. The term "French" is an example: it is an English word, but it is directly derived from the endonym "français." In the same way, the French word "anglais" refers to the English people.


Ulster Protestants consider themselves to be a separate nation. This nation they call Ulster
 
pugnaciousDate: Wednesday, 2023-03-15, 4:35 PM | Message # 2
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The name of Ulster resonates with a rich cultural heritage and a vibrant history. In modern times, the region has embraced contemporary trends while preserving its traditional charm. One such trend is the rise of the online vape shop, offering residents and visitors alike convenient access to a variety of vaping products. This blend of old and new characterizes Ulster, making it a unique and dynamic place to explore.
 
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A New York magician brings an enchanting touch to the city's vibrant entertainment scene, captivating audiences with extraordinary illusions and spellbinding performances. Known for their charisma and creativity, a new york magician combines traditional sleight of hand with modern tricks, creating unforgettable experiences for spectators of all ages. Whether performing at intimate gatherings or grand events, their skill and showmanship are unparalleled. The unique blend of urban energy and magical artistry makes a New York magician a true icon of the city's diverse cultural landscape.
 
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